Diabetic models

The diabetes

Diabetes mellitus is a modern-day epidemic and a global public health issue.

Diabetes is a syndrome characterized by disordered metabolism and abnormally high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) resulting from insufficient levels of the hormone insulin.

Two types of diabetes:

  • Type 1 diabetes is usually due to autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic β cells.
  • Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance in target tissues.

 

Diabetes impact

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases. The prevalence of non-insulin dependent DM has increased dramatically over the past decades (Zimmet et al., 2001).

In the USA, from 1995 through 2005 the numbers of diagnosed with diabetes increased from 8 to 15.8 millions (20 millions including estimated undiagnosed cases). Type II diabetes accounts for over 90% of cases of diagnosed diabetes, and is associated with older age, obesity, physical inactivity…

Worldwide prevalence is predicted to reach 300 million in 2025 (H. King et al., 1998) with a further 418 million people with impaired glucose tolerance http://www.robertsongeoconsultants.com/classic.php.

Total annual costs of diabetes in the USA in 2002 were estimated at $92 billion for direct cost, and $40 billion for indirect costs (Diabetes Care 26:917–932, 2003).

 

In vitro models :

Isolated pancreatic islet from diabetics rodents:

  • Determination of insulin release by ELISA
  • Determination of glucose level
  • Transplantation of treated islet into diabetics rodents

Use of rat’s pancreatic cells : RIN5mF strain (ATCC® Number: CRL-11605Tm) :

  • Determination of insulin release after in vitro stimulation by ELISA

Determination of cytokines release (typically TNFα, IFNγ, IL10, IL4…) by ELISA from spleen or pancreas cells of diabetics rodents.

 

Diabetes type I in vivo models :

NOD (non obese diabetic) mice. Spontaneously develop type I diabetes. Symptoms occurs preferentially in female mice (90% at thirty weeks of age).

BB (bio breeding) rats. Spontaneously develop autoimmune diabetes due to absence of regulatory T cells (around 12 weeks of age).

Chemo-induced diabetes (for mice or rats) by I.P. injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/Kg for rat and 40 mg/Kg for mice). One single high-dose injection (150 mg/kg), or 5 low doses injections. Symptoms occurs around 10-14 days post-injection

 

Diabetes type II in vivo models :

Ob/Ob mice. Leptin deficient obese mice (Charles River, France).

Db/Db mice. Leptin-receptor deficient mice.

Obese mice with closest clinical pattern from humans (Charles River, France).

Spontaneous diabetes type II rats models (Charles River, France) :

  • ZDF rats
  • SHHF rats
  • ZSF-1 rats

 

 

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